Con this respect, the Qesem hominins may play an important role

Con this respect, the Qesem hominins may play an important role

Durante summary, the notion that shifts durante human life histories, accompanied by improved intelligence, are an evolutionary response sicuro a dietary shift towards high-quality food resources that are difficult sicuro acquire has already been suggested by Kaplan . Our model is innovative con that it suggests verso mechanism for such a dietary shift that could have propelled hominins to per new evolutionary stage.


For more than two decades per view dominated anthropological discussions that all modern human variation derived from Africa within a relatively recent chronological framework. Recent years challenged this paradigm with new discoveries from Europe, Inclinazione, and other localities, as well as by new advances con theory and methodology. These developments are now setting the stage for verso new understanding of the human story mediante general and the emergence of modern humans con particular (addirittura.g., , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ). Analysis of their dental remains suggests a much deeper time frame between at least some of the ancestral populations and modern humans than that which is assumed by the “Out of Africa” model. This, combined with previous genetic studies (di nuovo.g., , , , ), lends support onesto the notion of assimilation (ed.g., ) between populations migrating “out of Africa” and populations already established mediante these parts of Eurasia.

It is still premature esatto indicate whether the Qesem hominin ancestors evolved mediante Africa prior preciso 400 kyr , developed blade technologies , , and then migrated onesto the Levant sicuro establish the new and unique Acheulo-Yabrudian cultural complex; or whether (as may be derived from our model) we face a local, Levantine emergence of verso new hominin lineage. The plethora of hominins per the Levantine Middle Paleolithic fossil primato (Qafzeh, Skhul, Zuttiyeh, Tabun) and the fact that the Acheulo-Yabrudian cultural complex has mai counterparts sopra Africa may hint durante favor of local cultural and biological developments. This notion gains indirect support from the Denisova finds that raise the possibility that several different hominin groups spread out across Europe and Asia for hundreds of thousands of years, probably contributing to the emergence of modern human populations , , .

It should not ad esempio as verso surprise that H. erectus, and its successors managed, and con fact evolved, sicuro obtain per substantial amount of the densest form of nutritional energy available con nature – fat – to the point that it became an obligatory food source. Animal fat was an essential food source necessary con order preciso meet the daily energy expenditure of these Pleistocene hominins, especially taking into account their large energy-demanding brains. It should also not ad esempio as a surprise that for a predator, the disappearance of a major prey animal may be a significant reason for evolutionary change. The elephant was a uniquely large and fat-rich food-package and therefore per most attractive target during the Levantine Lower Palaeolithic Acheulian. Our calculations esibizione that the elephant’s disappearance from the Levant just before 400 kyr was significant enough an event to have triggered the evolution of verso species that was more adept, both physically and mentally, puro obtain dense energy (such as fat) from verso higher number of smaller, more evasive animals. The concomitant emergence of verso new and innovative cultural complex – the Acheulo-Yabrudian, heralds per new serie of behavioral habits including changes per hunting and sharing practices , , that are relevant to our model.

If indeed, as we tried puro esibizione, the dependence of humans on fat was so fundamental to their existence, the application is made possible, perhaps after some refinement, of this proposed bioenergetic model to the understanding of other important developments per human evolutionary history

Thus, the particular dietary developments and cultural innovations joined together at the end of the Lower Paleolithic period sopra the Levant, reflecting verso link between human biological and cultural/behavioral evolution.

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